HER2 is a predictive biomarker for HER2-targeted therapeutics. For antibody–drug conjugates (ADCs; e.g., trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1)), HER2 is utilized as a transport gate for cytotoxic agents into the cell. ADC biomarkers may therefore be more complex, also reflecting the intracellular drug transport. Here we report on a positive correlation between the early endosome marker RAB5A and T-DM1 sensitivity in five HER2-positive cell lines. Correlation between RAB5A expression and T-DM1 sensitivity is confirmed in breast cancer patients treated with trastuzumab emtansine/pertuzumab in the I-SPY2 trial (NCT01042379), but not in the trastuzumab/paclitaxel control arm. The clinical correlation is further verified in patients from the KAMILLA trial (NCT01702571). In conclusion, our results suggest RAB5A as a predictive biomarker for T-DM1 response and outline proteins involved in endocytic trafficking as predictive biomarkers for ADCs.