We investigated the impact of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol adherence on the ability of functional tumor volume (FTV), a quantitative measure of tumor burden measured from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, to predict response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We retrospectively reviewed dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRIs for 990 patients enrolled in the multicenter I-SPY 2 TRIAL. During neoadjuvant chemotherapy, each patient had 4 MRI visits (pretreatment [T0], early-treatment [T1], inter-regimen [T2], and presurgery [T3]). Protocol adherence was rated for 7 image quality factors at T0–T2. Image quality factors confirmed by DICOM header (acquisition duration, early phase timing, field of view, and spatial resolution) were adherent if the scan parameters followed the standardized imaging protocol, and changes from T0 for a single patient's visits were limited to defined ranges. Other image quality factors (contralateral image quality, patient motion, and contrast administration error) were considered adherent if imaging issues were absent or minimal. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to measure the performance of FTV change (percent change of FTV from T0 to T1 and T2) in predicting pathological complete response. FTV changes with adherent image quality in all factors had higher estimated AUC than those with non-adherent image quality, although the differences did not reach statistical significance (T1, 0.71 vs. 0.66; T2, 0.72 vs. 0.68). These data highlight the importance of MRI protocol adherence to predefined scan parameters and the impact of data quality on the predictive performance of FTV in the breast cancer neoadjuvant setting.