Background: I-SPY2 is a multicenter, phase 2 trial using response-adaptive randomization within biomarker subtypes defined by hormone-receptor (HR), HER2, and MammaPrint (MP) status to evaluate novel agents as neoadjuvant therapy for high-risk breast cancer. The primary endpoint is pathologic complete response (pCR). Cemiplimab is an anti-PD-1 inhibitor approved for the treatment of NSCLC and cutaneous basal and squamous cell CA. Lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG-3) binds MHC class II leading to inhibition of T-cell proliferation and activation and is often co-expressed with PD-1. REGN3767 is a fully humanized mAb that binds to LAG-3 and blocks inhibitory T-cell signaling. Concurrent blockade of LAG-3 with an anti-PD-1 may enhance efficacy of an anti-PD-1.
Methods: Women with tumors ≥ 2.5cm were eligible for screening. Only HER2 negative (HER2-) patients were eligible for this treatment; HR positive (HR+) patients had to be MP high risk. Treatment included Paclitaxel 80 mg/m2 IV weekly x 12 and Cemiplimab 350 mg and REGN3767 1600 mg both given q3weeks x 4, followed by doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide (AC) every 2 weeks x 4. The control arm was weekly paclitaxel x 12 followed by AC every 2-3 weeks x 4. Cemiplimab/REGN3767 was eligible to graduate in 3 of 10 pre-defined signatures: HER2-, HR-HER2-, and HR+HER2-. The statistical methods for evaluating I-SPY 2 agents has been previously described. To adapt to changing standard of care, we constructed “dynamic controls” comprising ‘best’ alternative therapies using I-SPY 2 and external data and estimated the probability of Cemiplimab/REGN3767 being superior to the dynamic control. Response predictive subtypes (Immune+ vs Immune-) were assessed using pre-treatment gene expression data and the ImPrint signature.
Results: 73 HER2- patients (40 HR+ and 33 HR-) received Cemiplimab/REGN3767 treatment. The control group included [357 patients with HER2- tumors (201 HR+ and 156 HR-) enrolled since March 2010. Cemiplimab/REGN3767 graduated in both HR-/HER2- and HR+/HER2- groups; estimated pCR rates (as of June 2022) are summarized in the table. Safety events of note for Cemiplimab/REGN3767 include hypothyroidism 30.8%, adrenal insufficiency (AI) 19.2%, hyperthyroidism 14.1%, pneumonitis 1.3%, and hepatitis 3.8%. All were G1/2 except for 6 (7.7%) G3 AI and 3 (3.8%) G3 colitis. Rash occurred in 62.8%, 9% G3 and 2 pts (2.6%) had pulmonary embolism. X% of adrenal insufficiency cases required replacement therapy. 40 patients (11 HR+ and 29 HR-) in Cemiplimab/REGN3767 were predicted Immune+; 32 (29 HR+ and 3 HR-) were predicted Immune-. In the HR+ group pCR was achieved in 10/11 (91%) patients with Immune+ subtype compared with 8/29 (28%) with Immune- subtype. Additional biomarker analyses are ongoing and will be presented at the meeting.
Conclusion: The I-SPY 2 study aims to assess the probability that investigational regimens will be successful in a phase 3 neoadjuvant trial. Dual immune blockade with a LAG-3 inhibitor and anti-PD1 therapy resulted in a high predicted pCR rate both in HR-/HER2- (60%) and HR+/HER2- (37%) disease. The novel Imprint signature identified a group of HR+ patients most likely to benefit from this active regimen.