Background: I-SPY 2 is a multicenter, phase 2 trial using response-adaptive randomization within molecular subtypes defined by receptor status and MammaPrint (MP) risk to evaluate novel agents as neoadjuvant therapy for women with high-risk breast cancer. Tucatinib is a potent HER2 (ErbB2) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, selective for HER2 vs. epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and is active vs. brain metastases. Safety and efficacy of tucatinib combined with paclitaxel, pertuzumab, and trastuzumab are unknown and were tested in a planned 10 patient (pt) safety run-in of the I-SPY 2 trial. Methods: Women with tumors ≥ 2.5cm were eligible for screening. Only pts with tumors that were HER2+ by FISH were eligible for this treatment. Treatment included tucatinib (max dose 300 mg) BID for 12 weeks with weekly paclitaxel 80 mg/m2 and trastuzumab (2 mg/kg weekly following loading), and pertuzumab (420 mg every 3 weeks following loading), followed by doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide (AC) every 2 weeks x 4. The control arm was weekly paclitaxel and trastuzumab with pertuzumab for 12 weeks followed by AC every 2 weeks x 4. All pts undergo serial MR imaging and response at 3 & 12 weeks is combined with real time pCR data to estimate, and continuously update, the predicted pCR rate for each trial arm. The goal of the trial is to identify/graduate regimens with ≥85.% Bayesian predictive probability of success (i.e. demonstrating superiority to control) in a future 300-patient phase 3 neoadjuvant trial with a pCR endpoint. This run-in arm was conducted to determine safety of combining tucatinib with paclitaxel/trastuzumab/pertuzumab, monitoring special adverse events of interest including LFT elevations and gastrointestinal toxicities.
Methods: The I-SPY 2 methods have been previously published.
Results: 20 pts were evaluable in tucatinib treatment arm. The control arm included 329 historical controls enrolled since April 2010. The initial tucatinib dose was 300 mg BID. After enrollment of the first 8 pts, there were 3 pts with grade 3 LFT elevations, 2 pts with grade 2/3 diarrhea, 1 pt with grade 2 neutropenia, and 1 pt with grade 3 nausea. After this safety review, the tucatinib dose was lowered to 250 mg BID. Among 5 additional pts enrolled, 3 developed grade 2/3 LFT abnormalities. The protocol was then modified to tucatinib 150 mg BID days 1-28 and then 250 mg BID days 29-84; 7 pts were treated. Safety data were reviewed after 20 pts were enrolled; the arm was then suspended due to similar LFT elevations regardless of tucatinib dose reduction or schedule. 7 of 20 pts (35%) had reversible Grade 3 or higher ALT/AST elevation. No pt met criteria for Hy’s Law. In terms of efficacy, 12 of 14 evaluable pts had > 80% reduction of tumor volume by 12 weeks, measured by MRI assessment of functional tumor volume (FTV).
Conclusion: The goal of the run-in arm was to determine the safety of adding tucatinib to the combination of paclitaxel/trastuzumab/pertuzumab. The addition of tucatinib resulted in unacceptable but reversible LFT elevations despite tucatinib dose reduction. Tucatinib containing therapy resulted in >80% decline in tumor volume at 12 weeks in 86% of pts. Tucatinib showed a high level of activity when combined with paclitaxel/trastuzumab/pertuzumab, but the combination is not feasible. Table: Number of pts with grade 2, 3, and 4 LFT elevations by treatment schedule (highest grade per patient per event, ALT or