Background: I-SPY 2 is a multicenter, phase 2 trial using response-adaptive randomization within molecular subtypes defined by receptor status and MammaPrint (MP) risk to evaluate novel agents as neoadjuvant therapy for women with high-risk breast cancer. SD-101 is an investigational Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) agonist CpG-C class oligodeoxynucleotide that stimulates the production of IFN-α and interleukin (IL)-12, functional maturation of plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and production of cytotoxic antibodies. IT SD-101 was combined with systemic anti-PD-1 antibody Pb to investigate the antitumor and immunologic activity of this novel immunotherapeutic strategy.
Methods:Women with tumors ≥ 2.5cm were eligible for screening. Only pts (pts) with HER2- disease were eligible for this treatment. Treatment included weekly P x 12 in combination with IT SD-101 2 mg/ml (1 ml for T2 tumors, 2 ml for >T3 tumors) weekly x 4, then q3 weeks x 2, and IV Pb q3 weeks x 4, followed by doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide (AC) q2-3 weeks x 4 (SD-101+Pembro 4). Pts in the control arm received weekly P x 12 followed by AC q2-3 weeks x 4. The I-SPY 2 methods have been previously published. This investigational arm was eligible for graduation (>85% chance of success in a 300-person phase 3 neoadjuvant trial) in 3 of 10 pre-defined signatures: HER2-, hormone receptor (HR)+/HER2- and HR-/HER2-.
Results: 75 pts were randomized and evaluable in SD-101+Pembro 4 treatment arm. The control arm included 329 historical controls enrolled since April 2010. The study arm was stopped due to maximal patient accrual. Pt characteristics were balanced; 56% HR+, 44% HR-. The probability that SD-101+Pembro4 was superior to control exceeded 97% for all eligible tumor signatures, but did not reach the threshold for graduation in any of the signatures. However, it is notable that the rate of pCR/Residual Cancer Burden 1 (RCB1) in the HR+/HER2- signature was 51%. Preliminary safety events for SD-101+Pembro 4 include increased rates of fever, neutropenia, febrile neutropenia, transaminitis, and immune-related events, including adrenal insufficiency.
Conclusions: The SD-101+Pembro 4 regimen was active but did not meet the pre-specified threshold for graduation in I-SPY 2. pCR/RCB 1 analysis suggests improved response in the HR+/HER-negative signature compared to control. The clinical significance of these findings needs to be weighed against the potential risk of immune-related toxicities.