Patients who achieve a pathological complete response (pCR- defined as no invasive cancer) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for breast cancer (BC) have improved outcomes, but there is still controversy about the significance of residual ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) on local recurrence rate (LRR). The I-SPY 2 TRIAL is an adaptive neoadjuvant platform trial evaluating novel experimental regimens in comparison to standard chemotherapy in women with high-risk breast cancer. The purpose of this study is to determine if residual DCIS after NAC in early BC affects LRR in patients with or without residual invasive disease in the I-SPY 2 TRIAL.
933 I-SPY 2 patients with residual cancer burden (RCB) and follow-up data were included in this analysis. Residual DCIS was defined as any carcinoma in situ > 0% on RCB evaluation. Local recurrence was defined as recurrence in breast, chest wall or locoregional nodes and/or skin and subcutaneous tissue. We stratified our cohort into four groups: those without residual invasive disease (defined as RCB0) ± residual DCIS, and those with residual invasive disease (RCB>0) ± residual DCIS. We estimated LRR within each group using the Kaplan Meier method; and used Cox proportional hazards models to assess LRR differences between groups, with: patients with no residual disease (invasive or in situ) as reference group.
Among 933 patients assessed, median follow up time was 3.9 years. RCB 0 status was achieved in 337 patients (36%). Of these, 267 (29%) had no residual DCIS, which represents our reference group, and 70 (7%) had residual DCIS. Among 596 (64%) patients who had RCB>0, 296 (32%) had residual DCIS. For patients with RCB0 without DCIS and RCB0 with DCIS, the LRR at 3 years were similar: 2% vs 3% respectively (Hazard ratio: 1.29 [0.26-6.39]). Results were also similar in the RCB>0 group, with a LRR of 10% at 3 years in those without residual DCIS, and 11% in those with residual DCIS. Both RCB>0 groups had significantly higher LRR when compared to the patients with RCB0 without DCIS (Hazard ratio: 5.25 [2.20-12.5]) and HR 5.85 [2.47-13.9] respectively).
There was no association between residual DCIS and LRR after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, regardless of resolution of invasive disease. Further work is needed to determine whether residual DCIS should drive locoregional therapy decisions after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for invasive breast cancer.