Background: I-SPY 2 is a multicenter, phase 2 trial using response-adaptive randomization within biomarker subtypes to evaluate novel agents when added to standard neoadjuvant therapy for women with high-risk stage II/III breast cancer - investigational agent(I) +paclitaxel(T) qwk, doxorubicin & cyclophosphamide(AC) q2-3 wk x 4 vs. T/AC (control arm). The primary endpoint is pathologic complete response (pCR) at surgery. The goal is to identify/graduate regimens that have ≥85% Bayesian predictive probability of success (statistical significance) in a 300-patient phase 3 neoadjuvant trial defined by hormone-receptor (HR) & HER2 status & MammaPrint (MP). Regimens may also leave the trial for futility (< 10% probability of success) or following accrual of maximum sample size (10%< probability of success <85%). We report the results for experimental arm Ganitumab, a type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) inhibitor. IGF1R inhibitors are known to induce insulin resistance and all patients assigned to Ganitumab received metformin.
Methods: Women with tumors ≥2.5cm were eligible for screening. MP low/HR+ and HER2+ tumors were ineligible for randomization. Hemoglobin A1C≥ 8.0% were ineligible. MRI scans (baseline, 3 cycles after start of therapy, at completion of weekly T and prior to surgery) were used in a longitudinal statistical model to improve the efficiency of adaptive randomization. Ganitumab was given at 12mg/kg q2 weeks and metformin at 850mg PO BID, while receiving ganitumab. Analysis was intention to treat with patients who switched to non-protocol therapy counted as non-pCRs. Ganitumab/metformin was open only to HER2- patients, and eligible for graduation in 3 of 10 pre-defined signatures: HER2-, HR+HER2- and HR-HER2-.
Results: Ganitumab/metformin did not meet the criteria for graduation in the 3 signatures tested. When the maximum sample size was reached, accrual to this arm stopped. Ganitumab/metformin was assigned to 106 patients; there were 128 controls. We report probabilities of superiority for Ganitumab/metformin over control and Bayesian predictive probabilities of success in a neoadjuvant phase 3 trial equally randomized between Ganitumab/metformin and control, for each of the 3 biomarker signatures, using the final pathological response data from all patients. Safety data will be presented.
Conclusion: The I-SPY 2 adaptive randomization study estimates the probability that investigational regimens will be successful in a phase 3 neoadjuvant trial. The value of I-SPY 2 is to give insight about the performance of an investigational agent's likelihood of achieving pCR. For Ganitumab/metformin, no subtype came close to the efficacy threshold of 85% likelihood of success in phase 3, and this regimen does not appear to impact upfront reduction of tumor burden. Our data do not support its continued development for the neoadjuvant treatment of breast cancer.